The most popular block printing technique promotes

2022-07-23
  • Detail

Woodblock printing promotes the spread of Buddhism in China and East Asia on September 30, 2009, the Chinese woodblock printing technique declared by Jiangsu Yangzhou Guangling ancient book printing agency on behalf of China was officially selected into the list of representative works of human intangible cultural heritage. Block printing has a history of more than 1300 years, 400 years earlier than movable type printing. Throughout the whole process of the emergence and development of block printing in China, almost all of them left traces of the spread of Buddhism. From printing simple Buddhist statues and mantras to printing Buddhist classics on a large scale, on the one hand, the technology of block printing has been improved, and at the same time, the spread of Buddhism in China and East Asia has been expanded

woodblock printing promotes the spread of Buddhism in China

China's earlier woodblock printing was mainly used in the spread of Buddhism. From the perspective of unearthed cultural relics, ancient classics and historical records, according to the different load measurement methods, China's earlier woodblock printing was mainly used in the spread of Buddhism. In this process, eminent monks, emperors, scholars and believers all contributed to the flames

Xuanzang was one of the earliest monks in China who used block printing to spread Buddhism. According to the biography of the three Zang masters of the dacien Temple of the Tang Dynasty, written by Hui Li, the direct disciple of Xuanzang, Emperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty, since his father respected Xuanzang after he took the throne, Emperor Gaozong also paid great respect to Xuanzang, sent courtiers to express condolences, and also gave thousands of sections of silk brocade and hundreds of vests. After Xuanzang accepted it, he scattered as he pleased and had nothing to save. Vow to create an image of the shijuyuedi (the word "shijuyuedi" is a transliteration of the Sanskrit quantifier Koti, and the word "shijuyuedi" is 1million copies) and create it. From the first year to the fifteenth year of Emperor Gaozong of the Tang Dynasty (AD), Xuanzang used block printing to print 1million copies of Buddhist statues, which were distributed to Buddhist believers

the most typical example of the emperor's use of block printing to spread Buddhism is zhaokuangyin's printing of Kaibao. In the fourth year of Kaibao in the Northern Song Dynasty (AD 971), zhaokuangyin, the emperor Taizu of the Song Dynasty, ordered his ministers Gao pin and Zhang Congxin to go to Yizhou (today's Chengdu, Sichuan) to preside over the printing of the Tripitaka Sutra. In the eighth year of rejuvenating the country in the Taiping period (AD 983), he completed all the engraving of 130000 Scripture plates, and then began to print the first official woodblock engraving of the Tripitaka Sutra in Chinese in Chinese history. Since the Da Zang Jing was first carved in the Kaibao period of the Northern Song Dynasty, it is called Kaibao

for another example, the devout Buddhist King Qian Chu of Wu and Yue, together with the eminent monk longevity master, carved and printed a large number of Buddhist statues and Tatu mantras. In addition, Qian Xu built Hangzhou Leifeng Pagoda on Xizhao mountain on the South Bank of West Lake in the second year of Taiping Xingguo in the Northern Song Dynasty (AD 977). At that time, the Buddhist pagoda contained a block printed Scripture, Leifeng Pagoda Sutra, also known as the treasure chest printed dharoni Sutra. This sutra is now collected in the library of Guangdong Sun Yat sen University

Su Shi, a famous poet and poet of the Northern Song Dynasty, was the representative of the literati who used block printing to spread Buddhism. In the 8th year of Yuanfeng of the Northern Song Dynasty (1085 AD), the prince Tai Bao Zhang Dao presented Su Shi with the Jinshan lune jiaabadora Sutra and asked him to place the seal of the Sutra between the Yangtze River and the Huaihe River. In the same year, Su Shi brought this Sutra to Jinshan Temple in Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province. With the help of the Jinshan Temple elder, the Buddha seal master, Su Shi wrote all the Scriptures, and then invited craftsmen who were good at carving to Jinshan Temple to carve the Scriptures and enter the system test state. After the engraving, the Sutra has been kept in Jinshan Temple. Both believers and pilgrims can print it whenever they want, which makes the Sutra widely spread

in the Jin Dynasty, cuifazhen, the daughter of cuijin, a government official in Luzhou (now in Changzhi, Shanxi Province), was devout in Buddhism. She made a vow by breaking her arm and raised money to publish the Zhaocheng gold collection. Many Buddhist believers were deeply moved and donated money to help. Around the ninth year of emperor Xizong's reign (1149 A.D.), the "Zhaocheng Jincang" began to be engraved. It took about 30 years to complete. The golden collection of Zhaocheng is clearly printed and forcefully written. Each volume has a beautiful picture of Sakyamuni Buddha at the beginning. It is a precious specimen in the history of printing in China and also a precious material for studying the history of Scripture carving and edition in China

block printing made Buddhist music spread throughout Xixia and Tibetan inhabited areas. With the increasing improvement of block printing technology, Buddhist classics were still spreading rapidly in the Xixia Dynasty, which was based on Buddhism in the 9th century. The Xixia Dynasty was founded on Buddhism. Both officials and ordinary people were eager for Buddhist classics. In order to develop Buddhism, the rulers of the Western Xia Dynasty repeatedly purchased Buddhist classics from the Northern Song Dynasty. In the pagoda of Gaotai temple, an important temple built during the Western Xia Dynasty, there is a carved and printed Da Zang Jing given by the Song Dynasty. From 1908 to 1909, Russian Explorer Kozlov excavated and unearthed a large number of block printed Xixia Buddhist scriptures and Chinese Buddhist scriptures in Heishui City, Ejina Banner, Inner Mongolia. These unearthed cultural relics also demonstrated the fact that block printing is one of the ways of Buddhism transmission

In the 13th century, block printing was introduced into Tibetan areas and made great contributions to the preservation and dissemination of Tibetan Buddhist literature. In Tibetan inhabited areas, Scripture printing houses have been set up one after another to publish and print Buddhist classics on a large scale. Sichuan dege Scripture printing house, built in the Yongzheng period of the Qing Dynasty, is known as the bright cultural pearl of the Tibetan region and the treasure house under the snow mountains. The most important printed materials are Buddhist classics. At present, the total number of engravings collected by dege Scripture Printing Institute has reached more than 290000. The most rare thing is that there are many rare, isolated and model Buddhist scriptures in the large number of block printed Buddhist scriptures collected by dege Scripture printing house

woodblock printing promotes the spread of Buddhism in East Asia

woodblock printing. Jianzhen is a gift to Japanese Buddhism. Jianzhen is an eminent monk and scholar in China and is very proficient in Chinese culture, especially woodblock printing. According to the book "biography of Jianzhen monks in the Three Kingdoms" written by the Japanese monk Xuandong, Jianzhen used block printing to print three major parts of the law school in Japan: the action notes annotated by the quaternion law, the Jie Mo Shu and the Jie Ben Shu

the introduction of block printing into Japan with Buddhism is evidenced by the fact that Xuanfang, a monk who studied abroad for 19 years in the Tang Dynasty, brought back more than 5000 volumes of Buddhist scriptures and many Buddhist statues when he returned to Japan. Ji Bei Zhenbei, a Japanese student and Deputy envoy to the Tang Dynasty, has lived in China for 18 years. After returning to Japan, Ji Beizhen became a teacher of the Japanese emperor of Germany. Later, under the auspices of Ji Bei Zhenbei, Emperor de ordered 1million copies of the dharoni mantra to be printed by engraving

during the yuan and Ming Dynasties, a large number of Chinese engravers from Zhejiang and Fujian went to Japan to make a living. At that time, a large number of Buddhist scriptures and quotations of eminent monks were being reproduced and printed in Japanese monasteries. Therefore, these Chinese engravers played a great role in the process of Buddhist Scripture carving in Japan and promoted the wide spread of Buddhism

block printing was introduced into Korea with Buddhism at the beginning of its invention. In October, 1966, a printed Chinese version of daturoni sutra was found in today's Buddhist temple in Qingzhou, South Korea, with characters invented by Wu Zetian. This object can prove that block printing was introduced to the Korean Peninsula through Buddhism at the beginning of its invention in China

in the eighth year of Taiping Xingguo in the Northern Song Dynasty (A.D. 983), Kaibao was completed. Soon, the Koryo people who advocated Buddhism (the Koryo Dynasty in the song and Liao dynasties, now refers to the Korean people on the Korean Peninsula) heard the news and sent envoys to the Song Dynasty to ask the Song Dynasty for a gift of the Tripitaka. In the second year of Duangong in the Northern Song Dynasty (AD 989), Korea sent envoys to pay tribute, so the Song Dynasty granted the Da Zang Jing. This is the first time that the block printed edition of the Tripitaka was introduced into Korea. After the song version of the Tripitaka was introduced into Korea, it promoted the development of Korean Buddhist culture. Under the influence of China, Koryo people soon learned the woodblock printing technology. When King Xian of Korea came, he began to engrave and print the Koryo Tripitaka, the content of which was mainly based on the "treasure opening" of the Northern Song Dynasty

in the eighth year of Yuanfeng of the Northern Song Dynasty (1085 AD), Shi Yitian, the son of King Wen of Korea, came to China to learn Buddhist doctrines and also widely collect Buddhist classics and Confucian classics. After returning to China, shiyitian set up a teaching and collection capital prison in the king temple of gaolixing, cataloging Buddhist scriptures and Buddhist classics obtained from song, Liao and Japan, and published and engraved as "continued to be reintroduced by BMW Group in 2001", with a total of more than 4700 volumes. After this sutra was spread to the Song Dynasty, many large monasteries reproduced the parts of it that had not been engraved in China, which contributed to the spread of Chinese Buddhist history

Copyright © 2011 JIN SHI